1919–1939 The Formation of Schools and the Rise of Clinical Science Instruction
Flexner report were rapidly being closed and the remaining institutions were realigning themselves according to Flexner's blueprint for reform. The UC Medical School's plight was not unique--the report indicated that of twenty-five top university-affiliated institutions, five (Rush Medical College, California, Nebraska, Kansas, and Stanford) had similarly separated instructional programs. Flexnerian reforms mandated the implementation of salaried full-time positions for both scientists and clinicians, consolidation of science and clinical instruction in one geographical location near a major university, and designation of a large teaching hospital completely dedicated to clinical training. In response to these requirements, President Barrows drafted a plan for bringing full-time "vocational" professors to the medical school, consolidation of instruction in one place, and reconfiguration and expansion of the UC Hospital teaching bed capacity along with plans for a school of public health. He then asked the Regents to develop a budget corresponding to these reforms, hoping that in so doing he would secure "the generous participation" of the General Education Board.
Hooper Foundation specified that Hooper-funded research be conducted in San Francisco. Then in 1917, the new UC Hospital was built with $750,000 of private subscriptions from a supportive San Francisco community. President Barrows hoped that the Regents might solve the problem and bend to the wishes of the General Education Board, or conversely, that the General Education Board might be flexible on the issue of the school's actual location.
On March 12, 1921, in a move reflecting local politics and the lobbying influence of San Francisco clinicians, the UC Regents voted to reaffirm their 1912 decision, stating flatly that "as a prudential measure. . . . it shall be the policy of the Board to consolidate the medical department in San Francisco." That summer the General Education Board received the UC proposal for consolidation at San Francisco and never replied. It was clear that consolidation of the medical school would have to take place at the university campus in Berkeley in order to satisfy the terms of a Rockefeller endowment.
This was a major loss for California higher education: Rockefeller money was transforming the national landscape of medical education in the interwar years and would eventually provide over $50 million to sixteen medical schools. Philanthropy came from other sources as well. Between 1910 and 1932 foundations would pour a total of $150 million into the reform of American medical education. The Regents' stubborn adherence to the San Francisco location prevented UC School of Medicine from obtaining national philanthropic financial support during this time of flush private endowments.
Once again, the Regents stood firm for the Parnassus location, sealing the fate of the UC Medical School for the next three decades. Despite their stubborn rejection of an all-Berkeley medical campus, the Regents did respond to President Campbell's call for dramatic reform at the medical school and joined him in mobilizing state resources to accomplish the task.
- William F. Sharp (1926-1927)
- Guy S. Millberry (1927-1939)
- Hebert C. Moffitt (1913-1919)
- Wallace I. Terry (1919-1920)
- David P. Barrows (1921-1923)
- Lionel S. Schmitt, acting (1923-1927)
- R. Langly Porter (1927-1936)
- W. McKim Marriott (1936)
- Chauncey D. Leake (1937-1939)
- Louise Marrow (1918-1922)
- Mary May Pickering (1922-1927)
- Kathleen Fores (1927-1931)
- Eleanor Waterman (1931-1933)
- Harriet Gutermute, acting (1933-1934)
- Henry C. Biddle (1927-1932)
- Henry B. Carey (1932-1937)
- Carl L. A. Schmidt (1937-1944)